The technologic changes that have taken place during the past years lead the microbiological sciences to a new era. The study describes some recent advances in several fields of microbiology such as the sequentiation of the complete genomes of free-living microorganisms; molecular characterization of transposable-element-associated mutations leading to constitutive L-ornithine aminotransferase expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the genotype-based microbial identification; major technologic changes in clinical microbiology; the concept of biodiversity and its potential developments in the applied microbiology; the impact of technological advancements in microbiology and the effects of its future trends.