Agricultural Microbiology deals with the study of plant-associated microbes, plant and animal diseases. Agricultural microbiology deals with soil fertility such as microbial degradation of organic matter and soil nutrient transformations. It further addresses problems in agricultural practices caused by lack of biodiversity in microbial communities. The study of microbial strains relevant to agricultural applications is useful in factors such as soil nutrients, plant-pathogen resistance, crop robustness, fertilization uptake efficiency, and more. The many symbiotic relationships between plants and microbes ultimately exploits for greater food production necessary to feed the expanding human populace. In addition to safer farming techniques for the sake of minimizing ecological disruption, this session discusses the latest trends in agriculture microbiology.
Horticultural Therapy designs appealing aesthetics in plants which elicit feelings of inner peace generating positive emotions towards a meaningful appreciation of life. Horticulture therapists create therapeutic gardens with plant-dominated environment purposefully designed to facilitate interaction with the healing elements of nature. There are many sub-types of therapeutic gardens which include healing gardens, enabling gardens, rehabilitation gardens, and restorative gardens. Horticultural therapy helps improve memory, cognitive abilities, task initiation, language skills, and socialization. In physical rehabilitation, horticultural therapy helps strengthen muscles and improve coordination, balance, and endurance. Horticultural therapists are professionals with specific education, training, and credentials in the use of horticultural for therapy and rehabilitation. This session discusses many innovative techniques in creating therapeutic gardens which help people regain their health and inner peace.
Agricultural Waste Management
Agricultural Waste Management deals with the disposing of agricultural waste material to improve crop production by increasing the supply of nutrients in soils where the material is applied. Manure is the excrement of livestock and poultry, and food-processing waste is damaged fruit and vegetables and the peelings, stems, leaves, pits, and soil particles removed in food preparation. The manure and food-processing waste are solid, slurry, or liquid. A high content of nitrogen limits the application rate. Toxic or otherwise dangerous wastes, such as those mixed with the lye used in food processing, are not considered in the ratings. Application of sewage sludge not only disposes of waste material but also can improve crop production by increasing the supply of nutrients in the soils where the material is applied. This session discusses more about the latest techniques in agricultural waste management.
Organic farming is an agricultural system originated in early 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. It relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. Biological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. In general, organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances. For instance, naturally occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin and rotenone are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include copper sulfate, elemental sulfur and Ivermectin. This session discusses organic farming having several advantages such as sustainability, openness, self-sufficiency, independence, health, food security, and food safety.
Food Nanotechnology improvises food processes that use enzymes to confer nutrition and health benefits. For instance, enzymes are added to food to hydrolyze anti-nutritive components to increase the bio-availability of essential nutrients such as minerals and vitamins. To make these enzymes highly active, long-lived and cost-effective, nanomaterials can be used to provide superior enzyme-support systems due to their large surface-to-volume ratios compared to traditional macroscale support materials. The study of food nanotechnology addresses the potential applications of nanotechnology for functional foods and nutraceuticals by applying new concepts and engineering approaches involved in nanomaterials to target the delivery of bioactive compounds and micronutrients. Nanomaterials allow better encapsulation and release efficiency of the active food ingredients, the development of nano-emulsions, liposomes, micelles, biopolymer complexes and cubosomes to improve properties for bioactive compounds protection, controlled delivery systems, and food matrix integration. This session discusses more about food nanotechnology.
Food & Nutrients
Nutrients in food are necessary for the healthy growth of human beings. Food we take consists of B Vitamins, Calcium, Carbohydrates, Cholesterol, Fat, Fiber, Folic Acid, Incomplete Proteins, Iron, Niacin, Protein, Riboflavin, Saturated Fats, Sodium Thiamin, Unsaturated Fats, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and many more. Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion. In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, anemia, scurvy, preterm birth, stillbirth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. This session discusses more about food and nutrients and its effects on human beings.
Greenhouse & Horticulture
Greenhouse and Horticulture developed techniques to adapt food crops to the right environment through breeding and selecting plants resistant to drought and to shorter production cycles and adjust to the environment surrounding the plants. Plant cultivation is influenced by various factors such as soil quality, water availability, and climatic conditions. The use of windbreaks, mulches, plant or row covers, and cold frames are part of greenhouse and horticulture. Some types of garden frames like hotbeds, heated frames may be heated by artificial means, but do not actually provide for any control of the environment. The only method of food crop production that makes use of control of the environment is greenhouse production. With the use of a greenhouse it is possible to cultivate food-producing plants in locations and at times when climatic conditions would adversely affect them or even prevent them from growing. This session discusses the latest techniques in greenhouse and horticulture.
Soil Science & Soil Fertility
Soil science deals with the study of edaphic conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber. Soil science is also a constituent of the field of agronomy and is thus also described as soil agronomy. Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth and to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality. The soil fertility should be able to supply essential plant nutrients and water in adequate amounts and proportions for plant growth and reproduction; and the absence of toxic substances which may inhibit plant growth. Soil fertility should have a sufficient soil depth for adequate root growth and water retention. This session discusses the latest developments in soil science and soil fertility.
Fertilizers and Pesticides
Fertilizers and Pesticides both have definite pros and cons associated with their use. Both types of chemical tend to increase yields, and thus make a significant difference in food production, particularly in countries that struggle periodically with famines. On the other hand, they both can cause water pollution when erosion carries the chemicals off of farms along with eroded soils after each rainfall. There is also concern by some authorities that pesticides pose a risk, not only to non-target animal and plant species, but to humans as well. There is no doubt that fertilizers increase yields of crops around the world. Norman Borlaug, the father of the 1960s Green Revolution, which vastly expanded food production and helped stave off world hunger has argued that modern farming, including the use of fertilizers and herbicides double or triple food production. This session discusses more about the latest developments in fertilizers and pesticides.
Agronomy & Crop Science
Agronomy and Crop Science deal with the challenges in agricultural problems such as drought, chemical constraints, extreme temperatures, flooding and oxidative stress, mineral deficiency and toxicity stress. It further focuses on increasing crop yields while ensuring the safety of food supplies. Agronomy and crop science also focuses on plants such as food and cash crops like grain and seed nutrition; and as well as increasing the amount and quality of food. It also strives to improve crop and soil conditions in cost effective and environmentally sound ways. Agronomy and Crop Science include the studies in subfields like soil chemistry, genetics, entomology, plant physiology, plant breeding and soil fertility, agroecology, turf grass management, seed production or pest management. This session discusses more on the latest developments in agronomy and crop science.
Agriculture and Environment
The environmental impact of agriculture is the effect that different farming practices have on the ecosystems around them; and how those effects can be traced back to those practices. The environmental impact of agriculture varies based on the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. The environmental impact depends on the production practices of the system used by farmers. The connection between emissions into the environment and the farming system is indirect as it also depends on other climate variables such as rainfall and temperature. The environmental impact of agriculture involves a variety of factors from the soil, to water, the air, animal and soil variety, people, plants, and the food itself. Some of the environmental issues that are related to agriculture are climate change, deforestation, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste. This session discusses more about environmental impact on agriculture.
Agricultural biotechnology is a subfield of agricultural science which involves the use of scientific tools and techniques including genetic engineering, molecular markers, molecular diagnostics, vaccines, and tissue culture, to modify living organisms: plants, animals, and microorganisms. Desired traits are exported from a particular species of crop to an entirely different species. These transgene crops possess desirable characteristics in terms of flavor, color of flowers, growth rate, size of harvested products and resistance to diseases and pests. Farmers have manipulated plants and animals through selective breeding for tens of thousands of years in order to create desired traits. In the 20th century, a surge in technology resulted in an increase in agricultural biotechnology through the selection of traits like increased yield, pest resistance, drought resistance, and herbicide resistance. This session discusses more about agricultural biotechnology and the recent developments in its research field.
Plant Science deals with the subject of conventional large-scale farming, organic agriculture, new sustainable production practices, medicinal plants, greenhouse management, and turf and lawn management. Plant science mainly focuses on field crops, fruits and vegetables, recreational and ornamental plants, study of cropping systems, plant taxonomy of species, and production practices suitable for a cold-weather climate and also deals with plant disease, agricultural production, pest control issues and practices, and plant systems etc. This session discusses more about the recent developments in plant science such as horticulture and plant breeding like nurseries and greenhouses; plant research and development, food and plant production, biotechnology, landscape restoration.
Agriculture & Food Security
Agriculture & Food Security address the challenges of global food security. It deals with food security research, sustainable agriculture and food systems, nutritional insecurity, agricultural, ecological, environmental, nutritional, and socio-economic sciences, public health and policy. Agriculture and food security also deals with genetics and systems ecology; animal husbandry, fisheries and plant science; biodiversity, climatology and abiotic stresses; food technology and balancing agricultural outputs across food, feed, fibre and fuel; strategies for implementation of new policies and practices; public health related to food and nutritional security. Agriculture & Food Security and its recent advances have far reaching implications for nations across the world. This session discusses about agriculture and food security, its research advances and its implications to wider community of farmers and general public.
Agricultural Engineering deals with agricultural activities such as planning, supervising and managing the building of dairy effluent schemes, irrigation, drainage, flood water control systems, performing environmental impact assessments, agricultural product processing and interpret research results and implement relevant practices. Some of the agricultural engineers involve in manufacturing of agricultural machinery, equipment, processing technology, and structures for housing livestock and storing crops. Agricultural engineers also work in production, sales, management, research and development, or applied science. Agricultural engineers engage themselves in fields like food engineering and the processing of agricultural products; surveying and land profiling; soil management and conservation, including erosion and erosion control seeding, tillage, harvesting, and processing of crops; livestock production, including poultry, fish, and dairy animals, waste management, including animal waste, agricultural residues, and fertilizer runoff; and climatology and atmospheric science etc.
Crop Breeding And Genetics
Crop breeding is the art and science of improving important agricultural plants for the benefit of humankind. Crop breeders work to make our food, fiber, forage, and industrial crops more productive and nutritious. Crops provide for an expanding global population with increasing dietary expectations. Environmental protection is also improved by the work of crop breeders. Plant breeding has been practiced by farmers since the dawn of agriculture, as they selected plants for larger seeds, more tasty fruits, and other valuable traits. Today, both farmers and scientists work to breed plants. Crop breeding is a rapidly advancing science. It is able to make use of genetic and biotechnological innovations to efficiently develop better crop varieties. Recent biotechnological developments are helping breeders make desired genetic changes with much greater precision. They can cut out, add in, or otherwise edit genes so a plant can be more productive
Plant Biochemistry And Physiology
Plant Biochemistry is not only an important field of basic science explaining the molecular function of a plant but is also an applied science that is in the position to contribute to the solution of agricultural and pharmaceutical problems. Plant Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. Bbiochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research. Today the main focus of Plant Biochemistry is in understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of whole organisms.
Horticulture, Floriculture & Forestry
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar. It includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, and arboriculture. Floriculture or flower farming is the study of growing and marketing flowers and foliage plants. Floriculture includes cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for direct sale or for use as raw materials in cosmetic and perfume industry and in the pharmaceutical sector. It also includes production of planting materials through seeds, cuttings, budding and grafting. In simpler terms floriculture can be defined as the art and knowledge of growing flowers to perfection. The persons associated with this field are called floriculturists.
Agronomy And Soil Sciences
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation. Agronomy has come to encompass work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science. It is the application of a combination of sciences like biology, chemistry, economics, ecology, earth science, and genetics. Agronomy deals with production of food, creating healthier food, managing the environmental impact of agriculture, and extracting energy from plants.
Pesticides are chemical preparations used to kill fungal or animal pests. Over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species because they are sprayed across entire agricultural fields rather than target specifics. Pesticides cover a wide range of compounds including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, nematicides, plant growth regulators and others. All these pesticides contributed greatly to pest control and agricultural output. Ideally a pesticide must be lethal to target pests, but not to target non-target species including man. Unfortunately, this is not the case, so the controversy of use and abuse of pesticides has surfaced. The rampant use of these chemicals has played havoc with human and other life forms. This session discusses more about the latest developments in pesticides and its effects having impact on agriculture, horticulture, floriculture, entomology and on human beings.
Rice & Wheat Research
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are now grown in sequence on the same land in the same year around the world to meet the food demand of a rapidly growing human population. The challenges in rice and wheat research are to understand crop responses to the required combination of practices. As such management systems can be devised for high and sustainable combined yield. The repeated transitions from anaerobic to aerobic and vice versa affect soil structure, nutrient relations, the growth of the component crops, and their associated pests and diseases. Rice and wheat research should concentrate on soil, water and nutrient management strategies including reduced tillage and use of raised beds, that avoid the deleterious effects of puddling on soil structure and fertility, improve water and nutrient-use efficiencies to increase crop productivity of both rice and wheat.
Agroforestry & Landscaping
Agroforestry is gaining momentum at a time when the demand is increasing for sustainable natural resource management, environmental-friendly development approaches, landscape enhancement, integrated land use management, sustainable development are all areas in which agroforestry can make a positive contribution. Agroforestry takes several forms and is attracting growing interest across the world, and stakeholders are incorporating agroforestry activities in their land management and developing projects. They view it as a concrete tool for the sustainable development of rural land resources. There are many options when choosing which trees a forester should consider out of many choices such as fertilizer trees considered to be good for land regeneration, soil health, and food security; fruit trees which bears fruit and provides nutrition; fodder trees which improves smallholder livestock production; and medicinal trees which provides medicines.
Agricultural Production Systems & Agribusiness
Agricultural Production Systems are undergoing marked changes due to rising consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and environmental impact. Mixed-methods approach combines qualitative and quantitative data to develop and simulate a system dynamics model that explores the systemic interaction of these drivers on the economic, environmental and social sustainability of agricultural production. There is every need to develop sustainable production systems that address societal concerns for environmental impacts and nutritional value while maintaining an economically feasible production system for farmers. This session discusses the five feasible goals to address the sustainable production systems which include supplying human needs, enhancing the environment and natural resource base, increasing efficiency of resource use, improving economic viability of farming, and enhancing quality of life for producers and society.
Current Trends and Innovations in Agriculture Development
Current Trends and Innovations in Agriculture Development include technologies which reduce carbon footprint in agriculture as against the climate challenges. Technologies which enhance the health and yield of crops and herds are included as these reduce waste from the industry and alleviate pressure to convert native land into agricultural fields. Other technologies include are land and resource management practices to decrease or eliminate nutrient drain and erosion of soils such that the land may sustain cultivable yields indefinitely. Sustainability in crop farming focuses on increasing yields as well as improving resilience and persistence of crops. This session discusses about crop resilience describes the capacity of the plant to buffer shocks and stresses while persistence describes the ability of arable land to sustain a crop rotation indefinitely without diminishing yields.
Crop Protection & Entomology
Crop Protection and Entomology deal with the study of practice of managing plant diseases, weeds and other pests both vertebrate and invertebrate that damage agricultural crops and forestry. The crop plants get damaged by insects, birds, rodents, bacteria, etc. The crop protection techniques include pesticide-based approaches such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides; biological pest control approaches such as cover crops, trap crops and beetle banks; barrier-based approaches like agrotextiles and bird netting; animal psychology-based approaches such as bird scares; biotechnology-based approaches such as plant breeding and genetic modification; plant protection research studies insect, disease, and weed pests that threaten our food supply and the environment. This session discusses about the latest developments in crop protection and entomology.
Plant & Crop Science
Crop science is concerned with selection and improvement of crops. It includes research and development on production techniques, improving agriculture productivity, minimizing the effects of pest, planting, maintenance, protection, harvesting and storage aspects of post-harvest. Advances in Crop Science and Technology is the field dealing with the selection, breeding, crop productivity, seed production, organic cover crops, crop technology transpiration, field crops research, domestic animals, crop and irrigation technology. Crop technology is the application of organized and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. Technological interventions like dwarfing gene, hybrid technology, biotechnology, seed technologies and agronomic technologies will increase the crop production. Crop productivity is the quantitative measure of crop yield in given measured area of field. The use of new crop varieties and the efficient application of agrochemicals, immensely contributed to increased plant productivity.
Agriculture Practices & Engineering
Agricultural Engineering is the engineering discipline that studies agricultural production and processing. A key goal of this discipline is to improve the efficacy and sustainability of agricultural practices. Agricultural engineering is concerned with tasks such as planning, supervising and managing the building of dairy effluent schemes, irrigation, drainage, flood water control systems, performing environmental impact assessments, agricultural product processing and interpret research results and implement relevant practices. Some are consultants, employed by private engineering firms while others work in industry for manufacturers of agricultural machinery, equipment, processing technology, and structures for housing livestock and storing crops. Agricultural engineers work in production, sales, management, research and development, or applied science.
Agricultural Waste Management
Soil properties are important considerations in areas where soils are used as sites for the treatment and disposal of organic waste and wastewater. Selection of soils with properties that favor waste management can help to prevent environmental damage. The waste management systems not only dispose of and treat organic waste or wastewater but also are beneficial to crops application of manure and food-processing waste, application of sewage sludge, and disposal of wastewater by irrigation and for waste management systems that are designed only for the purpose of wastewater disposal and treatment overland flow of wastewater, rapid infiltration of wastewater, and slow rate treatment of wastewater. The wastewater from animal waste treatment lagoons or storage ponds, however, has much higher concentrations of these materials, mainly because the manure has not been diluted as much as the domestic waste.
Phytopathology or Plant Pathology is an interdisciplinary science that includes knowledge of botany, microbiology, crop science, soil science, ecology, genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and physiology. Phytopathology deals with the study and research on plant diseases that are caused by living organisms known as pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, protozoa, and parasitic plants; and by nonliving agents, such as air pollutants, nutrient imbalances, and various environmental factors. Development of new and innovative ways to control plant diseases is a constant challenge for phytopathologists or plant pathologists. Plant diseases may be managed by altering the host plant, the pathogen, and or the environment. Examples include growing resistant plant varieties, planting pathogen-free seed or stock, applying a biological control agent, modifying environmental conditions to decrease disease, and using plant medicines that inhibit or kill the pathogen without harming the plant or the environment.
Session 30 :Pomology
Pomology is a branch of botany that studies and cultivates fruits. Pomology is also known as fruticulture. Pomology is concerned with the study and research focusing mainly on the development, enhancement, cultivation and physiological studies of fruit trees. The goals of fruit tree improvement include enhancement of fruit quality, regulation of production periods, and reduction of production cost. One involved in the science of pomology is called a pomologist. An important focus of pomology was to research and review accounts of new varieties and to disseminate research findings to fruit growers and breeders through special publications and annual reports. The study of pomology has somewhat dwindled over the past century.
Sustainable Practices For Agriculture
Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways based on an understanding of ecosystem services; and the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. There are several key principles associated with sustainability in agriculture which include the incorporation of biological and ecological processes into agricultural and food production practices such as processes like nutrient cycling, soil regeneration, and nitrogen fixation; using decreased amounts of non-renewable and unsustainable inputs particularly the ones that are environmentally harmful; using the expertise of farmers to both productively work the land as well as to promote the self-reliance and self-sufficiency of farmers; tackling problems in pest management and irrigation solving agricultural and natural resource problems through the cooperation and collaboration of people with different skills.
Plant biotechnology is a set of techniques used to adapt plants for specific needs or opportunities. Situations that combine multiple needs and opportunities are common. A single crop may be required to provide sustainable food and healthful nutrition, protection of the environment, and opportunities for jobs and income. Finding or developing suitable plants is typically a highly complex challenge. Plant biotechnologies assist in developing new varieties and traits include genetics and genomics, marker-assisted selection (MAS), and transgenic or genetic engineered crops. These biotechnologies allow researchers to detect and map genes, discover their functions, select for specific genes in genetic resources and breeding, and transfer genes for specific traits into plants where they are needed.
Spices, Herbs And Medicinal Plants
Medicinal plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. Herbs are any plants used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume. Culinary use typically distinguishes herbs as referring to the leafy green parts of a plant either fresh or dried, from a spice, a product from another part of the plant usually dried, including seeds, berries, bark, roots and fruits. Herbs and spices were used as fragrant, flavor, delicious, aromatic medicinal plants. It can be smelt, eat, bath, and heal with them. Another important use of herbs and spices is cancer fighting.
Crop Protection, Awareness & Management
Crop protection is the science and practice of managing plant diseases, weeds and other pests both vertebrate and invertebrate that damage agricultural crops and forestry. Agricultural crops include field crops such as maize, wheat, rice, etc vegetable crops such as potatoes, cabbages, etc and fruits. The crops in field are exposed to many factors. The crop plants may be damaged by insects, birds, rodents, bacteria, etc. Crop protection encompasses pesticide-based approaches such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides; biological pest control approaches such as cover crops, trap crops and beetle banks; barrier-based approaches such as agrotextiles and bird netting; animal psychology-based approaches such as bird scarers; biotechnology-based approaches such as plant breeding and genetic modification.