The 3ADON chemotype of F. graminearum predominates in northern Europe, whereas the 15ADON chemotype is predominant in Central and southern Europe. In the present work, molecular chemotypes and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers were used to assess population structure and diversity among Fusarium graminearum isolates from four regional locations: Finland and northwestern Russia (F+NWR; N = 40), south Russia including central European Russia (SR; N = 54), Russian Far East (RFE; N = 96), and Norway (NOR; N =106). Trichothecene genotype composition was significantly different across the sampling locations. The 3ADON type was predominant in F+NWR+NOR, the 15ADON type was predominant in SR, and RFE had a balanced composition of these two trichothecene genotypes. The NIV genotype was not observed among the studied collection of F. graminearum. Analyses of population structure and relatedness indicated that the F. graminearum population in F+NWR are closely related to the NOR population and they can be considered as a unified population. However, significant differentiation was observed between the F+NWR+NOR population and those from the other sampled regions. The F+NWR+NOR population had substantially less genetic diversity than in the other regions. The observed high genetic diversity of populations in the Russian Far East suggests that it may be a source population for the other locations. Combined analyses of isolates from all sampled locations using a Bayesian clustering method indicated that there were two major genetic clusters in the sample, although additional substructuring was observed. Each of the two genetic clusters contained about 50 % of the isolates, and all but nine isolates (3.0%) were assigned to one of the two genetic clusters with high probability (q ≥ 0.8). Significant (P < 0.001) regional differences in genetic population frequencies were observed. Cluster 1 including F+ NWR and most Norwegian isolates had less genetic diversity than cluster 2 including most SR and RFE isolates. Cluster 1 may be more specialized to oats, which is supported by the fact that only the 3ADON genotype has been found in oats in Europe.


Education and degrees completed
• Doctor of Philosophy, University of Turku, Plant Physiology, December 13, 1990,
• Cum laude approbatur in Genetics, Univ. of Turku, May 1989
• Licentiate in Philosophy (Plant physiology), May 1987, Univ. of Turku.
• Highest degree in Biochemistry (mol. biol.) for MSc, October 1985, Univ. of Turku.
• Master of Science (Botany), May 1985, Univ. of Turku
• Docent/Adjunct Professor in Mycology (Ecology and Systematics/Plant biology), September 19, 2002, Univ. of
• Docent/Adjunct Professor in Mycology (Plant Physiology & Molecular Biology), November 27, 1997, Univ. of
Current position
• Adjunct Professor in Mycology at the Laboratory of Molecular Plant Biology at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku. Adjunct Professor in Mycology at the University of Helsinki. I am occasionally teaching at the universities of Turku and Helsinki and I am a head (PI) of head of two research projects at the University of Turku. A three year personal grant from Finnish Cultural Foundation July 2017-June 2020.
• Editorial Board member of the Journal of Plant Pathology 2015-.
• Advisory Board member of the Russian journal “Plant Protection News” 2014-
• Supervisor of the PhD thesis of Asmaa Shaban 2019-
• Also getting income from farming and forestry

Referee experience
• total more than 120 reviews in different journals

Skils and topics:
E.g. Biology, Agricultural Science, Real-time PCR, Molecular Mycology and Fusarium research.